Cookies can be overwritten by a man-in-the-middle attacker, even when using HTTPS. Using special cookie prefixes makes cookies more secure.

Same origin policy and cookies

The same origin policy prevents sites from interacting with each other. For example, it would be a bad thing if could interact with using your current session. To prevent this, the same origin policy dictates that sites can only communicate with themselves.

The same origin policy was thought up in the early days of the web, around 1995. Cookies were invented even earlier and although they have some form of same origin policy, it is not the same strict policy that is used for Javascript. For Javascript, the scheme, domain and port must match. For cookies, only the domain name is considered.

This makes it possible for sites that share a domain to modify cookies belonging to another web application. The implications for this are particularly interesting when considering a man-in-the-middle attacker.

Since the scheme is not taken into account for cookie access, an insecure HTTP domain can overwrite cookies that are intended for the secure HTTPS part of that same domain. This even works for secure cookies. Insecure sites can overwrite secure cookies on the same domain. This makes it possible for a man-in-the-middle attacker to overwrite cookies, even when the user visits a secure HTTPS site.

A man-in-the-middle attacker between the client and the bank

Suppose you are visiting over HTTPS. During your visit, you take a break to visit over HTTP. A man-in-the-middle attacker may change the response from to include a request to over HTTP. The attacker can then change that response to overwrite a cookie for

This does not work if has strict transport security with includeSubdomains on. The includeSubdomains flag is important, as subdomains can also set cookies for the parent domain. The attacker can use any subdomain, like, to set a cookie for

This is undetectable by the server, because the cookie properties are not sent to the server. The server can only see the key and the value of the cookie, not whether is has the secure flag or which domain it originated from.


So the attacker can not read the cookie, but he can overwrite it. This can be used in several ways:

  • The attacker can write a known value to the session ID. The client logs in and the attacker now has a working session. This works if the application is vulnerable to session fixation.
  • The attacker overwrites the session ID after log in. Alice thinks she is logged in as Alice, but she is actually logged in as the attacker.
  • The application checks the CSRF token in forms against a cookie. By overwriting that cookie, the attacker can perform CSRF requests.

Making cookies more secure

It is desirable to make secure cookies writable only from secure origins. However, changing this at once will break sites that use this functionality.

Cookie prefixes make it possible to flag your cookies to have different behavior, in a backward compatible way. It uses a dirty trick to put a flag in the name of the cookie. When a cookie name starts with this flag, it triggers additional browser policy on the cookie in supporting browsers.

The __Secure- prefix makes a cookie accessible from HTTPS sites only. A HTTP site can not read or update a cookie if the name starts with __Secure-. This protects against the attack we earlier described, where an attacker uses a forged insecure site to overwrite a secure cookie.

The __Host- prefix does the same as the __Secure- prefix and more. A __Host--prefixed cookie is only accessible by the same domain it is set on. This means that a subdomain can no longer overwrite the cookie value.


To use cookie prefixes, simply rename the cookies and include the prefix in front. If the cookie was previously named Bastogne, rename it to __Host-Bastogne. If the cookie is set by the framework, look up how to rename the session cookie of that framework. For example, in .NET you can put the following in the web.config:

    <sessionState cookieName="__Host-SessionId" />

Similarly, in PHP there is the setting to rename the PHPSESSID cookie.


Cookies can be overwritten by attackers in some cases, even if using secure cookies over HTTPS. Cookie prefixes change the browser policy on cookies, making this no longer possible.

Cookie prefixes are currently supported in Chrome and Firefox.